Countries & Nations

Explore Countries and Nations

Learn about telecommunications around the world. R-Spectrum has compiled extensive resources on companies, mobile networks, and regulatory information on almost every country in the world.

The global telecommunications industry is predominantly regulated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a specialised agency of the United Nations. The ITU is tasked with facilitating international communication through the development of technical standards. The ITU tracks and benchmarks the progress of countries and promotes development in underserved communities worldwide.

It's important to note that R-Spectrum compiles research on a range of sovereign and disputed territories regardless of their geopolitical status. We endeavour to remain an impartial observer and defer to international guidance where possible.

Woman at airport travelling to countries
Moldova is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe. The country is bordered by Romania to the west, Transnistria to the northeast, and Ukraine to the north, east, and south.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Economy and Infrastructure Moldova
Spectrum Regulator: National Regulatory Agency for Electronic Communications and Information Technology ANRCETI
Monaco is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea.
Policy Maker: Département des Relations Extérieures et de la Coopération
Spectrum Regulator: Département de l'Equipement, de l'Environnement et de l'Urbanisme
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East and Central Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south, east and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the population, with the remainder of the country sparsely populated.
Policy Maker: Mongolia Telecommunication Regulatory Authority ICTPA
Spectrum Regulator: Communications Regulatory Commission of Mongolia CRC
Montenegro is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the southwest and is bordered by Croatia to the west, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Serbia to the northeast, Kosovo to the east, and Albania to the southeast.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Economy Montenegro
Spectrum Regulator: Agency for Electronic Communications and Postal Services
Montserrat is a Caribbean island - specifically in the Leeward Islands, which is part of the chain known as the Lesser Antilles, in the British West Indies. It is a British Overseas Territory.
Policy Maker: Office of Communications - Ofcom
Spectrum Regulator: Montserrat Info-Communications Authority MICA
Morocco (المَغرِب / Maroc), officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa.  It is bordered by Spain to the north (a water border through the Strait and land borders with three small Spanish-controlled exclaves, Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera), Algeria to the east, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the south. Since Morocco controls most of Western Sahara, its de facto southern boundary is with Mauritania.
Policy Maker: Direction de l'Economie Numérique
Spectrum Regulator: Agence Nationale de Réglementation des Télécommunications ANRT
Mozambique is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest. It is separated from Madagascar by the Mozambique Channel to the east.
Policy Maker: Ministério dos Transportes e Comunicações Moçambique
Spectrum Regulator: Instituto Nacional das Comunicaçoes Moçambique INCM
Myanmar is a sovereign state located in the Southeast Asian region. Myanmar is bordered by India and Bangladesh to its west, Thailand and Laos to its east, and China / Tibet Autonomous Region to its north and northeast.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Transport and Communications Myanmar MCIT
Spectrum Regulator: Myanmar Communications Regulatory Commission MCRC
Namibia officially the Republic of Namibia is a country in southern Africa. It shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Information and Communication Technology Namibia
Spectrum Regulator: Communications Regulatory Authority of Namibia CRAN
Nauru (Naoero), officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia in the Central Pacific.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Telecommunications Nauru
Spectrum Regulator: Ministry of Telecommunications Nauru
Nepal is a landlocked central Himalayan country in South Asia. The country borders China in the north and India in the south, east, and west.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Information and Communications Nepal MoIC
Spectrum Regulator: Nepal Telecommunications Authority NTA
The Netherlands is a country in Western Europe. It is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, alongside with three island territories in the Caribbean (Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba).
Policy Maker: Directorate General for Energy, Telecommunications and Competition
Spectrum Regulator: Radiocommunication Agency Netherlands
New Caledonia is a special collectivity of France in the southwest Pacific Ocean, 1,210 km east of Australia. The archipelago, part of the Melanesia subregion, includes the main island of Grande Terre, the Loyalty Islands, the Chesterfield Islands, the Belep archipelago, the Isle of Pines, and a few remote islets.
Policy Maker: New Caledonia Postal and Telecommunications Services
Spectrum Regulator: New Caledonia Postal and Telecommunications Services
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses - the North Island, and the South Island, and around 600 smaller islands.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment
Spectrum Regulator: Radio Spectrum Management
Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north, the Caribbean to the east, and Costa Rica to the south.
Policy Maker: Instituto Nicaragüense de Telecomunicaciones y Correos TELCOR
Spectrum Regulator: Instituto Nicaragüense de Telecomunicaciones y Correos TELCOR
Niger is a landlocked country in Western Africa located along the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions. Niger is bordered by Libya to the northeast, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, Burkina Faso and Mali to the west, and Algeria to the northwest.
Policy Maker: Niger Ministère des Postes, des Télécommunications et de l'Economie Numérique
Spectrum Regulator: Autorité de Régulation des Télécommunications et de la Poste
Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Policy Maker: Federal Ministry of Communications Nigeria
Spectrum Regulator: Nigerian Communications Commission NCC
Niue is an island country in the South Pacific Ocean approximately 2,400 kilometres northeast of New Zealand, east of Tonga, south of Samoa, and west of the Cook Islands. Niue is a self-governing state in free association with New Zealand; and New Zealand conducts most diplomatic relations on its behalf.
Policy Maker: Niue Telecommunication & Post
Spectrum Regulator: Niue Telecommunication & Post
Norfolk Island is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres directly east of mainland Australia. The island is part of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Policy Maker: Department of Communications and the Arts
Spectrum Regulator: Australian Communications and Media Authority
North Korea (DPRK) is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. To the north and northwest the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers; it is bordered to the south by South Korea, with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) separating the two.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications DPRK
Spectrum Regulator: Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications DPRK