Countries & Nations

Explore Countries and Nations

Learn about telecommunications around the world. R-Spectrum has compiled extensive resources on companies, mobile networks, and regulatory information on almost every country in the world.

The global telecommunications industry is predominantly regulated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a specialised agency of the United Nations. The ITU is tasked with facilitating international communication through the development of technical standards. The ITU tracks and benchmarks the progress of countries and promotes development in underserved communities worldwide.

It's important to note that R-Spectrum compiles research on a range of sovereign and disputed territories regardless of their geopolitical status. We endeavour to remain an impartial observer and defer to international guidance where possible.

Woman at airport travelling to countries
Latvia is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states. It is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, and Belarus to the southeast.
Policy Maker: Latvia Public Utilities Commission
Spectrum Regulator: VAS Elektronisko sakaru direkcija
Lebanon is a sovereign state in Western Asia. It is bordered by Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus is west across the Mediterranean Sea.
Policy Maker: Ministère des Télécommunications Lebanon
Spectrum Regulator: Telecommunications Regulatory Authority Lebanon
Lesotho is an enclaved, landlocked country in southern Africa completely surrounded by South Africa.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Communications, Science and Technology Lesotho
Spectrum Regulator: Lesotho Communications Authority LCA
Liberia is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its west, Guinea to its north and Ivory Coast to its east.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Liberia
Spectrum Regulator: Liberia Telecommunications Authority LTA
Libya is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Policy Maker: General Authority of Communication and Informatics
Spectrum Regulator: General Authority of Communication and Informatics
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked microstate in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and Austria to the east and north.
Policy Maker: Office for Communications Liechtenstein
Spectrum Regulator: Office for Communications Liechtenstein
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian exclave) to the southwest.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Transport and Communications Lithuania
Spectrum Regulator: Lietuvos Respublikos ryšių reguliavimo tarnyba
Luxembourg is a landlocked country in western Europe. It is bordered by Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east, and France to the south.
Policy Maker: Ministère d'Etat
Spectrum Regulator: Institut Luxembourgeois de Régulation ILR
Macau is an autonomous region on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia. Macau is bordered by the city of Zhuhai in Mainland China to the north and the Pearl River Delta to the east and south.
Policy Maker: Office for the Development of Telecommunications and Information Technology
Spectrum Regulator: Bureau of Telecommunications Regulation DSRT
Macedonia is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. It is one of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia. A landlocked country, the Republic of Macedonia has borders with Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Information Society and Administration Macedonia
Spectrum Regulator: Agency for Electronic Communications Macedonia
Madagascar is an island country in the Indian Ocean off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands.
Policy Maker: Ministère des Postes, des Télécommunications et du Développement Numérique
Spectrum Regulator: Autorité de Régulation des Technologies de Communication ARTEC
Malawi is a landlocked country in southeast Africa. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, and Mozambique on the east, south and west. The country also consists of two exclaves; Likoma and Chizmulu Islands, located in Mozambican territorial waters.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Information and Communications Technology Malawi
Spectrum Regulator: Malawi Communications Regulatory Authority MACRA
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia. It consists of thirteen states and three federal territories separated by the South China Sea into two similarly sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia (Malaysian Borneo).
Policy Maker: Ministry of Communications and Multimedia Malaysia
Spectrum Regulator: Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission
The Maldives is a South Asian island country, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea. It lies southwest of India and Sri Lanka. The chain of twenty-six atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to the Addu City in the south.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Home Affairs Maldives
Spectrum Regulator: Communications Authority of Maldives
Mali is a landlocked country in West Africa located southwest of Algeria. Northern Mali includes the disputed region of Azawad which consists of approximately 60% of Mali's landmass.
Policy Maker: Ministère de l'Economie numérique et de la Communication
Spectrum Regulator: Autorité Malienne de Régulation des Télécommunications TIC et des Postes AMRTP
Malta is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea. Of the 21 islands only the three largest islands – Malta, Gozo, and Comino are inhabited.
Policy Maker: Malta Communications Authority
Spectrum Regulator: Malta Communications Authority
The Marshall Islands is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia. The country consists of a total of 29 atolls and five isolated islands situated in about 470,000 km2 of the Pacific.
Policy Maker: Marshall Islands Ministry of Transportation and Communications
Spectrum Regulator: National Telecommunications Authority Marshall Islands
Mauritania is a country in the Maghreb region of western Africa. The country is bordered by the disputed territory of Western Sahara in the north, Algeria in the northeast, Mali in the east and southeast, and Senegal in the southwest.
Policy Maker: Ministère de l'Emploi, de la Formation professionnelle et des Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication
Spectrum Regulator: Autorité de Régulation Mauritania
Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent. The country includes the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues, and the outer islands of Agaléga, St. Brandon and two disputed territories - Chagos Archipelago and Tromelin.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Technology, Communication and Innovation Mauritius
Spectrum Regulator: Information and Communication Technologies Authority ICTA
Mayotte is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte. It consists of a main island, Grande-Terre (or Maore), a smaller island, Petite-Terre (or Pamanzi), and several islets around these two. The archipelago is located in the northern Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Southeast Africa, between northwestern Madagascar and northeastern Mozambique.
Policy Maker: Autorité de Régulation des Communications électroniques et des Postes ARCEP
Spectrum Regulator: Agence Nationale des Fréquences ANFR