Countries & Nations

Explore Countries and Nations

Learn about telecommunications around the world. R-Spectrum has compiled extensive resources on companies, mobile networks, and regulatory information on almost every country in the world.

The global telecommunications industry is predominantly regulated by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a specialised agency of the United Nations. The ITU is tasked with facilitating international communication through the development of technical standards. The ITU tracks and benchmarks the progress of countries and promotes development in underserved communities worldwide.

It's important to note that R-Spectrum compiles research on a range of sovereign and disputed territories regardless of their geopolitical status. We endeavour to remain an impartial observer and defer to international guidance where possible.

Woman at airport travelling to countries
Norfolk Island is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometres directly east of mainland Australia. The island is part of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Policy Maker: Department of Communications and the Arts
Spectrum Regulator: Australian Communications and Media Authority
North Korea (DPRK) is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. To the north and northwest the country is bordered by China and by Russia along the Amnok and Tumen rivers; it is bordered to the south by South Korea, with the heavily fortified Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) separating the two.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications DPRK
Spectrum Regulator: Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications DPRK
The Northern Mariana Islands is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. The CNMI includes all islands in the Mariana Archipelago except Guam which is the southernmost island of the chain and a separate U.S. territory.
Policy Maker: International Communications and Information Policy CIP
Spectrum Regulator: Federal Communications Commission FCC
Norway is a sovereign state and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are also dependent territories.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Transport and Communications Norway
Spectrum Regulator: Norwegian Communications Authority Nkom
Oman is an Arab absolute monarchy country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The country shares land borders with the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Transport & Communications Oman
Spectrum Regulator: Oman Telecommunications Regulatory Authority TRA
Pakistan is a country in South Asia and on junction of West Asia, Central Asia and East Asia. The country is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India, resulting in a disputed border region contested by India, Pakistan, and China.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Information Technology Pakistan
Spectrum Regulator: Pakistan Telecommunication Authority PTA
Palau is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains approximately 340 islands, forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands in Micronesia. Palau is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, which provides defense, funding, and access to social services.
Policy Maker: Division of Communications Palau
Spectrum Regulator: Palau National Telecommunications Regulatory Authority
Palestinian territories refers to the territories of West Bank and Gaza Strip, occupied by Israel since 1967 within the former British Mandate for Palestine.
Policy Maker:
Spectrum Regulator:
Panama is a country in Central America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west and Colombia to the southeast.
Policy Maker: Ministerio de Gobierno
Spectrum Regulator: Autoridad Nacional de los Servicios Públicos ASEP
Papua New Guinea is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and approximately 600 offshore islands in Melanesia. The western half of New Guinea forms the Indonesian provinces of Papua and West Papua.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Communication and Information Technology PNG
Spectrum Regulator: National Information & Communications Technology Authority NICTA
Paraguay is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Policy Maker: Ministerio de Obras Públicas y Comunicaciones
Spectrum Regulator: Comisión Nacional de Telecomunicaciones Paraguay CONATEL
Peru is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, and in the south by Chile.
Policy Maker: Ministerio de Transportes y Comunicaciones
Spectrum Regulator: Organismo Supervisor de Inversión Privada en Telecomunicaciones OSIPTEL
The Philippines is a unitary sovereign state and island country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands.
Policy Maker: Department of Information and Communications Technology DICT
Spectrum Regulator: National Telecommunications Commission Philippines NTC
Poland is a sovereign country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Germany, Czechia, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Digital Affairs Poland
Spectrum Regulator: Office of Electronic Communications UKE
Portugal is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Portugal also comprises the archipelagos of Madeira and the Azores.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Planning and Infrastructure Portugal
Spectrum Regulator: Autoridade Nacional de Comunicações ANACOM
Puerto Rico is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the main island of Puerto Rico and a number of smaller ones, such as Mona, Culebra, and Vieques.
Policy Maker: International Communications and Information Policy CIP
Spectrum Regulator: Junta Reglamentadora de Telecomunicaciones de Puero Rico
Qatar is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf.
Policy Maker: Ministry of Transport and Communications Qatar
Spectrum Regulator: Communications Regulatory Authority Qatar
Réunion (La Réunion) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and 175 kilometres southwest of Mauritius.
Policy Maker: Autorité de Régulation des Communications électroniques et des Postes ARCEP
Spectrum Regulator: Agence Nationale des Fréquences ANFR
Romania is a sovereign state located in Southeastern Europe. It borders Bulgaria, Ukraine, Hungary, Serbia, and Moldova.
Policy Maker: Ministry for Communications and Information Society
Spectrum Regulator: National Authority for Management and Regulation in Communications of Romania ANCOM
Russia is a country in Eurasia. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. The Russian exclave of Kaliningrad Oblast, located on the coast of the Baltic Sea also borders Lithuania and Poland.  
Policy Maker: Ministry of Telecom and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation Minsvyaz
Spectrum Regulator: General Radio Frequency Centre Roskomnadzor